06 October 2020

Research Quality


‘Quality’ has been a tertiary education policy buzzword under both National and Labour governments over the last decade in New Zealand (see, for example, Ministry of Education 2006, 2009), but appeals to this much overused and often ill-defined notion mask deeper changes at work in the reconfiguration of research and researchers. These have been felt especially keenly in Education, where, one-by-one, all of the former stand-alone teachers’ colleges in New Zealand have been amalgamated with universities. The first such amalgamation occurred in the early 1990s and the last in the second half of the first decade of the 21st century. This has been, in part, a shift from a strong practitioner culture to an environment where research is expected to be an integral part of the job. 

Roberts, P. (2013). Reconfiguring research in New Zealand: education, politics and performativity. The Australian Educational Researcher, 40(4), 509-512. doi:10.1007/s13384-013-0108-x

29 September 2020

Critical analysis - taking stock of my progress.



My research design (so far):

Research aim:
The purpose of the proposed research is to better understand leaders experiences of listening to others and how this influences their leadership practice.

Research question:
How can we better understand listening as a leadership skill from the perspectives of Cook Island leaders in New Zealand primary schools?

Conceptual framework:
I will be using the Turanga Framework to critically examine the position of the Cook Island leaders in the context of their space.

The three elements of the framework are: (1) Akono’anga Māori, Cook Islands culture; (2) No teia tuatau, of this time; and (3) Tā’anga’anga’ia, put to practice.

(1) Akono’anga Māori, Cook Islands culture; - (What?)
Turanga - position, place and status
Pirianga - to close, hold tight, to work, relationships
Akaueanga - the duties of care
Ngakau aro’a - willingness and conviction of the heart

(2) No teia tuatau, of this time - (So what?)
Significant and relevant
 (i) komakoma marie, let our conversation be unhurried, be in the now; and (ii) kia maru to korua komakoma’anga, let your conversations be calm and measured.

(3) Tā’anga’anga’ia, put to practice - (Now what?)
Transformation occurs when akono’anga Māori, being relevant to the time and environment, are put into practice. On their own they are simply cultural concepts, isolated in space and without purpose. Turanga Māori is one conceptual framework. Irrespective of the model or framework a practitioner chooses, the model or framework is but a tool to inform and guide practice. Turanga Māori’s purpose is to be relevant and effective for Cook Islands Maori client(s) and practitioners. That practice should be informed by the culture of the people we serve.

Suggestions for Narrative Inquiry on Seidman (1998) adapted using the Turanga Framework
Pirianga process (Introduce myself, make connections, introduce the research and the Turanga Framework to participants, leave an information sheet and 
First interview - life history (Introduce the Turanga Framework to participants discuss where they see themselves in relation to Turanga, Pirianga, Akaueanga and Ngakau Aro'a) set the scene for second and third interview 
Second interview - No teia tuatau, of this time - discuss concrete experiences of listening (using 15 images of Cook Islands artefacts as a metaphor provocation).
Third interview - No teia tuatau, of this time - discuss concrete experiences of listening (using 15 images of Cook Islands artefacts as a metaphor provocation).
Third interview - reflect on their understandings and researchers Tā’anga’anga’ia, put to practice. Share what they have noticed about their listening, final reflections and any change to practice.

Elliott, J. (2012). Gathering narrative data. In S. Delamont (Ed.), Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education (pp. 281–298). Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/aut/detail.action?docID=866984

Seidman, I. (1998), Interviewing as Qualitative Research, New York: Teachers College Press


Methods:
Three to four Cook Island leaders in NZ Primary schools will be invited to participate in this project. I will meet with each participant 3 times over a span of 2 months and collect their narratives using the Turanga framework as our 

Overarching question: How do Cook Island leaders in New Zealand Primary schools understand listening as a leadership skill?

Patai korero:
Elliot (2012) offers a word of advice in this respect "Chase, therefore, concludes that we are most
likely to succeed in eliciting narratives from our research subjects when we ask simple questions that clearly relate to their life experiences" and they argue that "the best questions for narrative interviews invite the interviewee to talk about specific times and situations, rather than asking about the respondent’s life over a long period of time"..."In addition to asking appropriate questions, the interviewer who wants to encourage the production of narratives during an interview must clearly also be a good listener

Initial questions:
"Can you think of someone in your life who is/was a great listener? Tell me about them".
"What are your thoughts on listening as a leadership skill?"
"From these 15 images here, Tell me which best aligns with your listening identity"

Emerging questions:
Can you think of a significant or relevant listening episode in the past two weeks, tell me about it?
Which of these images best describe the way you were listening? tell me more.

How long can the narratives go for? In addition to asking appropriate questions, the interviewer who wants to encourage the production of narratives during an interview must clearly also be a good listener (Elliot, 2012, p. 287) what is important is to make the timing clear to the interviewee from the start...I suggested to interviewees that the interview would probably last for approximately an hour and a half, but might go on as long as two hours (Elliot, 2012, p. 287)

Elliott, J. (2012). Gathering narrative data. In S. Delamont (Ed.), Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education (pp. 281–298). Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/aut/detail.action?docID=866984

Seidman, I. (1998), Interviewing as Qualitative Research, New York: Teachers College Press

27 September 2020

Decisions! Decisions! Decisions!



There are so many decisions to make when undertaking research, It feels like 1,000,000 micro-decisions that need to be defended at any time. Lecompte & Pressie, (1993) cited in Mutch, (2013) shared a list of 7 decisions that all researchers need to make (and eighth one added by Mutch). I will attempt to answer these over the weekend (I am in my study cave), I do argue however that there are more micro-decisions made throughout this process, which I hope to reveal in the sections below or in further posts.

Research Question: How do Cook Island leaders in New Zealand primary schools understand listening as a leadership skill?

1. Formulating the problem
We often hear how communication skills are essential for leadership, but I wonder about the importance we place on listening.

2. Selecting the research design
I will be using the Turanga Framework to guide my work (a Cook Island framework developed by Dr. Jean Mitaera).

3. Choosing who and/or what to study
I have experience across early childhood primary and tertiary. Of all of these sectors, I am most interested in primary school education (for now).

I still have some thinking to do around the following questions (will save for another post).
4. Deciding how to approach participants
5. Selecting a means to collect the data
6. Choosing how to analyse the data
7. Interpreting and applying the analysis
8. Disseminating the findings

References:

LeCompte, M. D., & Preissle, J. (1993). with Tesch, R.(1993). Ethnography and qualitative design in educational research, 2.

Mutch, C. (2013). Doing educational research. Nzcer Press.

26 September 2020

Inspiration - Dr. Jean Mitaere and the Turanga Framework

I am so grateful to my sister-in-law who shared the Turanga Framework with me on the weekend. I have been hooked ever since. Over the week I have tracked down as much information as I can about the Turanga Framework and currently looking at how I can use this as a conceptual framework in my research. 

Recently, one of my students talked about the Ula Model and how he contacted the author for clarity around the model. I took a lead from him and contacted Jean this week to set up a zoom chat. Thankfully, she said yes! Both Jean and I spent half an hour on Friday afternoon chatting about our connections in Rarotonga and Wellington. 



Ministry of Social Development. (2012). Turanga Māori: a Cook Islands Conceptual Framework transforming family violence - restoring wellbeing (Issue March). http://www.pasefikaproud.co.nz/assets/Resources-for-download/PasefikaProudResource-Nga-Vaka-o-Kaiga-Tapu-Pacific-Framework-Cook-Islands.pdf%0Ahttp://www.pasefikaproud.co.nz/

Watch the following video of Jean - she epitomises our Cook Island wit, humour and tenacity - I am so inspired!


Generating knowledge – methods or techniques for research

Topic
How we listen to others influences how we lead

Research aim
To critically examine leaders’ experiences of listening to others and how this influences their leadership practice.

Thinking about the conceptual framework and topic of your study, what might count as knowledge generation in a study of this type? 

I've been reading lots on this topic and really trying to hone in on the conceptual framework I might use in my research design. I was challenged by my kaiako in my last assignment to consider embedding my work in a "Māori and Pacific conceptual framework". I had considered this but found difficulty in locking in on a particular framework that suited my purpose. I have had fun lately exploring a range of models with tauira in my Year 3 class where they are exploring Kakala Model, Ula Model, Te Whare Tapa Whā, Tapasā among others so I was keen to delve further into a framework that I could use and generate knowledge through. I have looked into the Tivaevae Model (Ava & Rubie-davies, 2011; Futter-Puati & Maua-Hodges, 2019; Tanner, 2018; Te Ava & Page, 2018) and Tūranga Framework (Ava & Rubie-davies, 2011; Enosa et al., 2019; Mafile’o et al., 2019; NZEI Te Riu Roa, 2015). I am really excited about the possibility of using a Cook Islands framework

I read extensively around Pacific research methodologies (’Otunuku et al., 2014; Chu et al., 2013; Mauigoa-Ekene et al., 2013; Naepi, 2015; Southwick et al., 2017) and have appreciated the clarity provided by Judy McFall-McCaffery who states “The word Pasifika is increasingly used in Aotearoa New Zealand to include all people of Cook Island, Niue, Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga, Fiji and other Pacific ethnicities who live in New Zealand. It is important to be aware that the “Pacific” is not homogeneous, but represents a diverse and distinct range of cultures and languages. Pacific ethnic groups speak different languages and have different cultural practices and customs” (McFall-McCaffery, 2010, p. 2). As Mafile’o, Mitaera & Mila (2019) point out “there have been a plethora of models, metaphors and cultural modes of delivery which are all attempting to do the same thing…they are trying to articulate our Pacific point of difference” (p. 24). I have been exploring a range of pacific research methodologies but am really convinced that I want to bring to light a Cook Island perspective. It is important to note at this point that "Cook Islands culture, ākono’anga Māori, is neither static nor universal; there is no one Cook Islands cultural perspective or practice" (Mafile’o et al., 2019, p. 26)

So with that in mind, I am keen to use the Turanga Māori framework developed by Dr. Jean Mitaera as part of her work within the Nga Vaka o Kaiaga Tau (2020) space.  The model has been shared in multiple spaces (Mafile’o et al., 2019; Mitaera, 2019a, 2019b) and is framed in the following way:

The three elements of the framework are: (1) Akono’anga Māori, Cook Islands culture; (2) No teia tuatau, of this time; and (3) Tā’anga’anga’ia, put to practice.

(1) Akono’anga Māori, Cook Islands culture;
Turanga - position, place and status
Pirianga - to close, hold tight, to work, relationships
Akaueanga - the duties of care
Ngakau aro’a - willingness and conviction of the heart

(2) No teia tuatau, of this time
No teia tuatau, of this time, emphasises the importance of being relevant and realistic given the social, economic, cultural and environmental contexts that people live in today. When engaging with Cook Islands families, it is important to: (i) komakoma marie, let our conversation be unhurried, be in the now; and (ii) kia maru to korua komakoma’anga, let your conversations be calm and measured.

3. Tā’anga’anga’ia, put to practice
Transformation occurs when akono’anga Māori, being relevant to the time and environment, are put into practice. On their own they are simply cultural concepts, isolated in space and without purpose. Turanga Māori is one conceptual framework. Irrespective of the model or framework a practitioner chooses, the model or framework is but a tool to inform and guide practice. Turanga Māori’s purpose is to be relevant and effective for Cook Islands Maori client(s) and practitioners. That practice should be informed by the culture of the people we serve.




Would appropriate answers to your research questions be found in the information held by other people, observing a situation or practice, encoded in documents or artefacts, through theorising or another creative process, through looking in a new way at a source of secondary data, reading other research studies, something else? Or a combination of some of these? Justify your answer. 

I have yet to finalise my research questions, that is a priority of mine this weekend. However, I have given lots of thought to how I might generate knowledge for my research aim, as my focus is on listening, so I believe that I would need to collect data by being an insight generator or provacateur (Alvesson, 2019)

Identify 3 - 4 different ways other people have generated knowledge in their research that might be applicable or useful in your study. Explain why they are potentially useful and highlight any adaptations that would need to be made. 

* Metaphors
* Narrative
* Critical reflection

Tivaevae Model

Powell, E. E. N. (2013). Stitching to the back-bone: A Cook Islands literary tivaivai. ResearchSpace@ Auckland.

Te Ava, A. (2011). Mou piriia te kōrero ‘ā to ‘ui tūpuna, akaoraoraia: Culturally responsive pedagogy for Cook Island secondary schools physical education. ResearchSpace@ Auckland.

George, K. (2010). Evolving patterns of identity: a visual response to observations of Cook Islands’ women and their adornment.

Ava, A. Te. (n.d.). Initiating a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy : Historical Shifts in Health and Physical Education in the Cook Islands School of Education , Faculty of Law , Education , Business & Arts , Charles Darwin. 1–10.

Thompson, S., Mcdonald, F., Talaki, M., Taumoepeau, V., & Te Ava, a. (2009). Training manual for teaching working with pacific students: Engaging pacific learners. 1–38.

Ward, A. (2011). Weaving educational threads, Weaving educational practice. Kairaranga, 12(1), 43–50. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ935477.pdf

Tamata, S. A. (n.d.). Framing Cook Islands Indigenous Epistemologies.

Carter, S., Laurs, D., Chant, L., & Wolfgramm-Foliaki, E. (2018). Indigenous knowledges and supervision: Changing the lens. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 55(3), 384–393. https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2017.1403941


Turanga Framework

Southwick, M., Scott, W., Mitaera, J., Nimarota, T., & Falepau, L. (2017). RESEARCH REPORT | Articulating a Pedagogy of Success for Pacific Students in Tertiary Education. www.akoaotearoa.ac.nz

NZEI Te Riu Roa. (2015). Dr Jean Mitaera - The Pasifika child - YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?reload=9&v=SNaSCp0DI1s

Mitaera, J. (2019, September 4). The value of unpaid work – a Cook Islands view | Ministry for Women. Ministry for Women: Minitatanga Mō Ngā Wāhine. https://women.govt.nz/node/1460/jean-mitaera

Mitaera, J. (2019, August 30). Tūranga Framework for Wellbeing. Werry Workforce:Whāraurau 2019 Leveki National Pacific Fono. https://vimeo.com/360156072

Newport, C. (2019). Vaka Moana as Policy Space: Navigating the Cook Islands Case of Climate Change Mobility. February 2019.

Tamata, S. A. (n.d.). Framing Cook Islands Indigenous Epistemologies.

Mafile’o, T., Mitaera, J., & Mila, K. (2019). Pacific-indigenous social work theories and models. In Pacific Social Work: Navigating Practice, Policy and Research (Issue 2019, pp. 22–34). https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315144252-3

Ministry of Social Development. (2012). Turanga Māori: a Cook Islands Conceptual Framework transforming family violence - restoring wellbeing (Issue March). http://www.pasefikaproud.co.nz/assets/Resources-for-download/PasefikaProudResource-Nga-Vaka-o-Kaiga-Tapu-Pacific-Framework-Cook-Islands.pdf%0Ahttp://www.pasefikaproud.co.nz/

Enosa, R., Tino Pereira, F., Taufa, S., Clifford-Lidstone, G., & Filimoehala-Burling, A. (2019). Nga Vaka o Kaiga Tapu. Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work, 30(4), 13–18. https://doi.org/10.11157/anzswj-vol30iss4id607

Mitaera, J., Paasi, L., Filipo, H., & Pasefika Proud. (2016). Literature search of Cook Islands cultural concepts to inform family violence interventions and practice: Research Summary. 1–2. https://www.msd.govt.nz/documents/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/research/pacific/msd-cook-island-report-18-v4.pdf%0Ahttps://www.msd.govt.nz/documents/about-msd-and-our-work/publications-resources/research/pacific/msd-cook-island-summary-v3

Metaphors

Cameron, L., & Low, G. (2011). Metaphor and the Social World: Introduction to the first issue. Metaphor and the Social World, 1(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1075/msw.1.1.01cam

Mills, A., Durepos, G., & Wiebe, E. (2012). Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research, 553–555. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412957397

Alvesson, M. (2014). A Metaphor Approach. Interpreting Interviews, 62–74. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446268353.n4

Alvesson, M. (2019). Metaphorizing the Research Process. 486–505.

Dragon, W., & Duck, S. (2005). Understanding research in personal relationships: A text with readings. Sage.

Danisman, S. A. (2020). Interviewing and Qualitative Content Analysis for Root Metaphors: A Case of Bad News Management. Interviewing and Qualitative Content Analysis for Root Metaphors: A Case of Bad News Management. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781529713398

Ignatow, B. G., & Mihalcea, R. (2020). Metaphor Analysis In : Text Mining : A Guidebook for the Social Sciences.

Thorpe, R., & Holt, R. (2011). The SAGE Dictionary of Qualitative Management Research. The SAGE Dictionary of Qualitative Management Research. https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857020109

Coghlan, D., & Brydon-Miller, M. (2014). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Action Research. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Action Research, 535–536. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446294406

Kumar, M., Pattanayak, S., & Pattanayak, S. (2019). Metaphors We Live By: Appreciating the Place of Language in Indigenous Research. Positioning Research: Shifting Paradigms, Interdisciplinarity and Indigeneity, 144–162. https://doi.org/10.4135/9789353282509.n8

Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., & Futing Liao, T. (2012). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods, 640–641. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412950589

Cornelissen, J. P., Oswick, C., Christensen, L. T., & Phillips, N. (2008). Metaphor in organizational research: context, modalities and implications for research - Introduction. Organization Studies, 29(1), 7–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/0170840607086634

Alvesson, M. (2003). Beyond Neopositivists, Romantics, and Localists: A Reflexive Approach to Interviews in Organizational Research. The Academy of Management Review, 28(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.2307/30040687

Manesh, R. (2017). Mistakes were made (by me). JAMA Internal Medicine, 177(10), 1422–1423. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.3781

Pauwels, L., Mannay, D., & Pauwels, L. (2020). An Integrated Conceptual and Methodological Framework for the Visual Study of Culture and Society. In The SAGE Handbook of Visual Research Methods. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526417015.n2

Narrative

Dwyer, R., Davis, I., & Emerald, E. (2016). Narrative research in practice: Stories from the field. Narrative Research in Practice: Stories from the Field, 1–245. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1579-3

Elliott, J. (2012). Gathering narrative data. In S. Delamont (Ed.), Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education (pp. 281–298). Edward Elgar Publishing Limited. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/aut/detail.action?docID=866984

Spector-Mersel, G. (2010). Narrative research: Time for a paradigm. Narrative Inquiry, 20(1), 204–224. https://doi.org/10.1075/ni.20.1.10spe

Fuluifaga, A. R. (n.d.). O FEOSOFA’IGA O LE VĀ: SAMOAN WOMEN NEGOTIATING VĀ RELATIONS IN AND AROUND AN ART CENTRE IN RURAL SAMOA.

Atkinson, P., & Delamont, S. (2007). Rescuing narrative from qualitative research. 1, 195–204. https://doi.org/10.1075/bct.6.20atk

Andrews, M., Squire, C., Tamboukou, M., Squire, C., Andrews, M., & Tamboukou, M. (2019). Introduction: What Is Narrative Research? Doing Narrative Research, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857024992.d2

Mollen, A., & Mollen, A. (2020). Research design and method. Digital Spaces of Civic Communication, 67–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-27515-0_5

Morley, C. (2014). Using Critical Reflection to Research Possibilities for Change. British Journal of Social Work, 44(6), 1419–1435. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bct004

Hickson, H. (2016). Becoming a critical narrativist: Using critical reflection and narrative inquiry as research methodology. Qualitative Social Work, 15(3), 380–391. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325015617344

Critical reflection

Tripp, D. (2012). Problematic and practice. In D. Tripp (Ed.), Critical incidents in teaching: Developing professional judgement (Classic ed, pp. 12–23). Routledge. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/aut/reader.action?docID=958710&amp

Morley, C. (2013). Critical reflection as a research methodology. Knowing Differently: Arts-Based and Collaborative Research Methods, January 2008, 265–280.

Tripp, D. (2012). Interpretation: creating critical incidents. In D. Tripp (Ed.), Critical incidents in teaching: Developing professional judgement (Classic ed, pp. 12–23). Routledge. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/aut/reader.action?docID=958710&amp

Delamont, S. (2009). The only honest thing: autoethnography, reflexivity and small crises in fieldwork. Ethnography and Education, 4(1), 51–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457820802703507

Larsson, P. (2010). Reflexive methodology: new vistas for qualitative research (second edition), by Mats Alvesson and Kaj Sköldberg. European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 12(1), 89–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642531003746857

Alvesson, M. (1996). Leadership studies: From procedure and abstraction to reflexivity and situation. Leadership Quarterly, 7(4), 455–485. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(96)90002-8

Watts, L. (2019). Re fl ective Practice , Re fl exivity , and Critical Re fl ection in Social Work Education in Australia. 72(1), 8–20.

Fook, J., & Gardner, F. (2007). The critical reflection model and process. In J. Fook & F. Gardner (Eds.), Practising critical reflection : a resource handbook. (pp. 43–63). Open University Press. https://ezproxy.aut.ac.nz/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cat05020a&AN=aut.b26169447&site=eds-live

Bozalek, V., & Zembylas, M. (2017). Diffraction or reflection? Sketching the contours of two methodologies in educational research. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 30(2), 111–127. https://doi.org/10.1080/09518398.2016.1201166

Morley, C. (2012). Some methodological and ethical tensions in using critical reflection as a research methodology. In J. Fook & F. Gardner (Eds.), Critical Reflection in Context : Applications in Health and Social Care (pp. 165–178). Taylor & Francis Group. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/aut/detail.action?docID=1039238

Hewson, S. (2007). “Researcher Know Thyself”. Critical Reflection on a Teacher’s Research Journey: If I Had Known Then ... TESOL in Context, 16(2), 25.

Morley, C. (2014). Using Critical Reflection to Research Possibilities for Change. British Journal of Social Work, 44(6), 1419–1435. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bct004

Murray, L., & Nash, M. (2017). The Challenges of Participant Photography: A Critical Reflection on Methodology and Ethics in Two Cultural Contexts. Qualitative Health Research, 27(6), 923–937. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732316668819

Fook, J. (2009). Developing an integrated framework for critical reflection: from practice, to theory, towards research. University of Southampton.

Hickson, H. (2016). Becoming a critical narrativist: Using critical reflection and narrative inquiry as research methodology. Qualitative Social Work, 15(3), 380–391. https://doi.org/10.1177/1473325015617344

21 September 2020

Whānau transformation through education

My tauira and I had the great privilege of listening to Whaea Shelley Hoani this morning. Such a mesmerising and inspiring wāhine toa she is. Her story will bring chills to your spine and make you want to 'live your best life because you can'. Whaea Shelley is the epitome of the mission statement of Te Wānanga o Aotearoa which is "Whānau transformation through education".

There were so many key points that struck me so deeply and inspire me to do more each and every day.
  • A piece of paper is important but it cannot replace lived experience
  • If we don't tell our stories others will continue to tell them for us.
  • Being otherised in my own country
  • Whose voices are being privileged
  • Mātauranga and Knowledge (different worldviews)
  • I am an expert in my way of living, being and knowing

Whakapapa Korero for Rangahau

Ranga = Weave
Hau = Winds

Reclaiming our narratives and making them visible
“The Whare-wananga of the Heavens. The house named Matangi-reia was that of the Supreme God IO. It was to this house that the god Tane went to secure from the Wananga-a-Rangi (heavenly knowledge), the knowledge of the wananga of Papa (knowledge of earthly things, laws, etc.).” p275

And here Walker (2004) explains in more detail, “According to Maori epistemology, humans have no knowledge of their own. All knowledge emanates from the celestial realm of the gods. Rangiatea, the storehouse of occult knowledge and prototype of the whare wananga, was situated in the uppermost realm of the heavens. Tanenuiarangi ascended to the uppermost heaven where he obtained the three baskets of knowledge from the Supreme Being. Tane brought the three baskets of knowledge – te kete tuauri, te kete tuatea and te kete aronui – down from the heavens for dissemination on earth. These baskets contained spiritual knowledge, celestial knowledge and knowledge of all the good things that men need to know for life on earth.” Pp344-345
Excerpt from Maginess, M. (2015, August 6). Rangahau, Research and Kaupapa Rangahau (as a Wananga response). Io-Maru-Taniwha Financial Freedom agent: GillionaireG. https://iomarutaniwha.wordpress.com/2015/08/06/rangahau-research-and-kaupapa-rangahau-as-a-wananga-response/
TWoA searched for a Māori concept and Rangahau was the term they adopted. As TWoA was founded in the tribal area of Tainui (one of the major Māori groups in New Zealand), it is no wonder that they sought a concept to underpin the institution’s Rangahau Strategy with Tainui traditions. This was found in the pūrākau (creation narrative) of Hani and Puna. Hani and Puna created Tiki-āhua, a male figure. When Tiki-āhua was completed, a heart was given unto it which was called Ranga-hau (The Questing Breath of Life). When this heart was implanted, Io [the Supreme God and creator of all things] purified it with these words: “This is Ranga-hau (The Questing Breath of Life). This is Manawa-tina (The Beating Heart). It is Manawa-toka (The Throbbing Heart).”

Then Hani and Puni created a female figure and named her Tiki-apoa. It is said that Tiki-āhua and Tiki-apoa’s descendants married those of Rangi and Papa (Sky and Earth) and humankind descends from these inter-marriages. The Tainui tradition also states that “it is the blood of Tiki-āhua and Tiki-apoa in us all that inspires the soul of man and urges him on to aspire to and acquire the knowledge of the gods.”
Excerpt from Hawkins, H. (2018). The Indwelling Spirit of Rangahau. Departures in Critical Qualitative Research, 7(4), 87–96. https://doi.org/10.1525/dcqr.2018.7.4.87

12 September 2020

Nailing my topic! well trying too...

I am back in my study cave this morning and I am scouring through my literature to hopefully get inspiration on how to frame up my research topic and question. I met mith my kaiako this week who encouraged me to think about the following things:

Defining topic
  • What context are you interested in listening
  • What sector/discipline?
  • Who - which leaders/leaders of what/who?
My answers
  • What context are you interested in listening (Primary schools or Early Childhood?)
  • What sector/discipline? (Education)
  • Who - which leaders/leaders of what/who? (Educational leaders with Māori or Pacific heritage)
As I work through my thinking this morning I will jot down my working topics below:
  • How does "listening" impact the leadership practices of Deputy Principals?
  • What role does "listening" play in the leadership practices of Deputy Principals?
  • How listening practices impact the leadership practices of Deputy Principals?
  • How do leaders listen?: perspectives from Deputy Principals of Pacific descent?
  • Leaders who listen: what impact does this have on their leadership practice?
  • Leaders who listen: Reflections from educational leaders of Pacific descent.


Black headphones with mobile smartphone
Listening

01 September 2020

Learning about research ethics - My notes



The Whakapapa of Ethics
Nuremberg Code - in the context of human rights against humanity by Nazi's of World War II
Experimentation on cocentration camp prisoners with out consent, most suffere
Two of ten principles
•The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
•The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
Behavioural experimentation like the study of feral child Genie in the 1970s 
Strong emphasis on medical and physical sciences in terms of ethical decision making
Increase in ethical review boards
Ethics is becoming a marker of research quality

THINK ABOUT ETHICS AS 'HOW CAN I DO THE BEST POSSIBLE FOR RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS' RATHER THAN COMPLIANCE.


Other points to consider:
  • Consider the Education Council values when thinking about how to best serve research participants (in fact I am making a commitment to using these in the design of my research).
  • Do Ethics because it is a good thing to do because you want to do right by your participants (links to Sonja Macfarlanes korero about mana-enhancing).
  • Researching in a pandemic - challenges of online interviewing, extra pressures on participants, how do you create that relationship with participants through zoom?
  • Informed and voluntary consent - people have a right to know and a right to decide.

Things I will action:
  • Review the purpose of my research to ensure it is fully mana-enhancing.
  • Research adequacy - make sure you make good use of peoples times.
  • What are the experiences of leaders with listening? What are their perspectives? Focus on their own stories about their experiences (rather than commenting on how others have listened to them).
  • AIM to have EA1 by or 9th November or 24th November 2020
  • Review the Ethics Principles  https://www.aut.ac.nz/research/researchethics/guidelines-and-procedures#2

Brown, C., Spiro, J., & Quinton, S. (2020). The role of research ethics committees: Friend or foe in educational research? An exploratory study. British Educational Research Journal, 46(4), 747-769. https://doi.org/10.1002/berj.3654

Smith, L. T. (2006) Researching in the margins: Issues for Māori researchers: A discussion paper, ALTERNATIVE 2(1), 4-27.

Cancelled Conference Conversations: Creating openings for Māori


I had the great pleasure of attending the "Cancelled Conference Conversations: Creating openings for Māori" this afternoon with my Year 1 tauira. Below are my key thoughts:

Dr. Sonja Macfarlane

* All of the work we do must be mana-enhancing
* The work you do as a researcher should be for the greater good
* What you are doing, and why you are doing it should be clear
* Rephrase questions so that they are mana-enhancing (mind your language).
* We need to think about how the well-being of the people we are researching is kept intact (use the Te Whare Tapa Whā model)
* Sonja Macfarlane referred to the 3 Principle's in Te Tiriti o Waitangi and see's these as important in future work.



Dr. Melissa Derby

* Refers to Tendershoots work
* He Awa Whiria Model - Culturally responsive literacy intervention for Māori
* A comment - Literacy is not a Māori thing...
* Further considerations: Phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, story retell and comprehension skills, bilingualism, the influence of whānau on literacy development 
* Game-based assessments looks interesting ...probably not relevant to my own study but sounds cool.


 

29 August 2020

Feedback is a gift!

I have just encouraged the tauira (students) I work with to give me some feedback on my teaching craft using the traffic light strategy:

Green - What do you want me to start doing?
Orange - What do you want me to continue doing?
Red - What do you want me to stop doing?

Below is a summary of the points raised. Overall the feedback was positive! (Which is great). I am not surprised at all by the comments that I talk too fast. This is the very same feedback I got over a decade ago from a long time mentor and by my cousin (who I invited to critique me last year). After reflecting on my feedback with my husband, I think it's time to do something about it. I have added the following post-it note to my screen to give me a daily reminder to speak slowly.



 

23 August 2020

Research Methods (my preliminary ideas)

I'm back into my study cave today and I am currently looking at the methods I might use for my upcoming research project. There are a number of methods that appeal to me in theory and today I am delving in a bit more to figure out which of these might be more useful/purposeful for me and this study.

* Autoethnographic research
* Case Study
* Phenomenology
* Narrative research
* Grounded Theory

Perhaps the method that sits with me is that of Narrative Research as it relates very much to the topic that I want to cover, I want to hear peoples stories/perspectives about listening.

Narrative Research


So what kind of research questions is narrative research appropriate for?

Well, I think it's particularly useful for looking at phenomena where you're trying to find out about things that are quite new, unknown, perhaps not spoken about very fully difficult sometimes to speak about.

 

18 August 2020

The perils of research...

I found this video by accident today, I was actually looking for something else. I'm so glad I stumbled on this as it helps me realise the importance of ethics, as Moana Jackson says "Perils of research (accepting as objective, as provable truth) something that may be a reaffirmation of old and bitter prejudices". When looking at listening as a leadership skill, if I were to be truly honest, there are some assumptions that we (including myself) don't 'listen' enough. This is a timely reminder to reframe my research in a way that is open to challenge/push down my own assumptions and biases.

The power of a research question...

I recently read a chapter Choosing a Research project by Cohen et al., (2018) and throughout this text there were frequent references to the work of Alvesson & Sandberg (2013). In my bid to be more curious and in finding original sources I have tracked down the original chapter and will share my reflections from that chapter in this space.


"Constructing and formulating research questions is one of the most, perhaps the most, critical aspects of all research. Without posing questions it is not possible to develop our knowledge about a particular subject" (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2013, p.2)

So here I am in the very early stages of my research pondering a possible research question. I am toying with my topics still so bare with me as I come to some type of consensus on this (or not). My current topic circles around the following ideas:

  • Listening as a leadership skill
  • Listening: The leadership skill you never thought you needed
  • Leading with listening
  • Dialogue: The dance of listening and speaking as leadership skills
To be quite frank I am struggling to find sufficient research on listening as a leadership skill in education. Hei aha, I'll keep exploring. Just I suspected, this article suggests in order to come up with great questions you really need to explore the literature... (duly noted).
"The need to better understand how to construct innovative research questions from the existing literature appears to be particularly pertinent today, as there is growing concern about an increasing shortage of more interesting and influential studies in many disciplines within the social sciences" (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2013, p.4)
My hope for this work (research) is to challenge some deeply held beliefs about what formal 'leaders' do. That is, those that are in formal leadership positions (entitative ontology of leadership) even though I believe in an iterative ontology of leadership (leadership belongs to everyone). So, how do I create questions that "challenge an audience's taken-for-granted assumptions in some significant way?" (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2013, p.5).

The following statement from the text "We emphasize the need for researchers to think through the purpose of their research and knowledge contributions and to resist pressures to adapt to dominant assumptions and be normalized, as well as normalizing others" (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2013, p.7) is hopeful! Just because there is little research surrounding 'listening' as a leadership skill doesn't mean I shouldn't follow this thread. My challenge now is to ensure that my research questions are interesting!

References:

Alvesson, M., & Sandberg, J. (2013). Constructing research questions: Doing interesting research. Sage.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Choosing a research project. In L. Cohen, L. Manion, & K. Morrison (Eds.), Research methods in education (Eighth edi, pp. 153–164). Routledge.

17 August 2020

So many readings...thank goodness for Mendeley!

In my previous study, I used EndNote as my referencing software. Throughout my years of studying, I have moved from Endnote 5 to Endnote 7 (and I see the most recent version is Endnote 9).  I found Endnote a little bit difficult and hugely expensive if you are not studying (got this for free or discounted when I was a student). This year, Matua Kane introduced me to Mendeley and I have absolutely loved it! I am still learning bit and tricks about what the software can do but have really enjoyed the ease of use so far. Check out Matua Kane's recent video using this software.


15 August 2020

Pondering my research topic....again!


I have heard the rumours that your initial thinking around your research topic will most definitely change as you refine your thinking in your research area. I have always been open to this...and have on many occasions stated my topic is "Listening as a leadership skill" BUT I'm not married to it. As I spend some time in my study cave this weekend I am currently looking at my research design. The following quote captured my attention:
Ignoring design is one way of saying openly to the world – ‘I don't care about the quality of my research, the wasted opportunities it represents, the waste of peoples’ time participating in or reading it, or the dangers to the very people that the research is meant to help’. (Gorard, 2017, p. 4)
Talk about, no pressure! So, here I am on a beautiful Saturday morning (in Level 3 lockdown imposed on Auckland, NZ last night for what will be 2 weeks) pondering my research topic...again!

I have found many of the articles selected by my lecturer to be spot on in terms of getting to the point about what is required and offering alternative thoughts on long-held myths - such as...

There are 3 types of research designs - quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. No, this is not the case. Nice to know that now, given I have actually done 2 other 'research' papers in the past in my previous study. 

So, in a bid to add some structure into my thinking process I am going to use the questions asked by (Cohen et al., 2018) to help surface my thinking...
It is vital that the researcher knows what she or he wants the research to ‘deliver’, i.e. to answer the question ‘what are the “deliverables” in the research?’ (Cohen et al., 2018, p. 157)
What do we want to know as a result of the research that we did not know before the research commence?
  • To have some clarity around a definition of listening - but after reading a few readings maybe I mean conversations or dialogue?
  • To understand leaders perceptions of listening and their role in listening?
  • To create a model of listening for leaders?
  • To understand the impact of listening on teachers when leaders listen? (maybe this is not an immediate question but something to keep in the back of my mind)
What do we want the research to do? 
  • Define listening in an educational context
  • To support participants in understanding their own listening behaviours
  • Offer a multi-cultural perspective to listening
What do we want the research to find out?
  • Listening to understand what does this look like, feel like, sound like for leaders?
  • How might listening impact on collegiality and collaboration?
  • What are the insights/reflections that can be revealed from hearing participants stories?
Further points to consider:

Access - "A formidable issue to be faced here is one of access. Many new researchers fondly imagine that they will be granted access to schools, teachers, students, parents, difficult children, students receiving therapy, truants, dropouts, high performers, star teachers and so on. This is usually NOT the case: gaining access to people and institutions is one of the most difficult tasks for any researcher, particularly if the research is in any way sensitive" (Cohen et al., 2018, p. 158)

Positionality - As the researcher, I need to consider my own limitations, values and belief and ensure that my biases are in check. For example - I believe wholeheartedly in coaching as a way of increasing self-directed humans. This may impact my motivations in uncovering the importance of listening as a leadership skill e.g. I want to hear what I want to hear.

The benefits - What are the benefits of the researcher to me? Gaining a better understanding of 'listening' as a skill will eventually support me in my own coaching skills. I am really excited about carving out time and space to read up on (literature review) a topic that I find incredibly fascinating. The side benefit to this is that I also will accomplish the requirements for a Master of Education Leadership degree.

Availability - How available am I to conduct this research. Given the parameters of what I want to achieve what is realistic? I work full-time and also have Kia Mahira (where I coach several clients) and run workshops. I will happily read and read and read on a topic of interest. I need to consider what I want to achieve and whether this is feasible in terms of time/and participants time.

Boundaries - "As the saying goes, ‘the best way to eat an elephant is one bite at a time’! Researchers must put clear, perceptible, realistic, fair and manageable boundaries round their research". (Cohen et al., 2018, p. 160)

Research questions: Questions such as ‘what is happening?’, ‘what has happened?’, ‘what might/will/ should happen?’ open up the field of research questions. ‘what are the effects of such- and-such a cause?’ and ‘what are the causes of such- and-such an effect?’ are two such questions, to which can be added the frequently used questions ‘how?’ and ‘why?’. These questions ask for explanations as well as reasons. Many of the most useful pieces of research stem from complex issues, complex research questions and
‘difficult- to-answer’ research questions. (Cohen et al., 2018, p. 161)

References:

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2018). Choosing a research project. In L. Cohen, L. Manion, & K. Morrison (Eds.), Research methods in education (Eighth edi, pp. 153–164). Routledge.

Gorard, S. (2017). What is Research Design? Research Design: Creating Robust Approaches for the Social Sciences, 2–12. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781526431486.n1





29 July 2020

I've got a supervisor - not a topic!

I was pretty excited to have been notified this week that I have been appointed a supervisor for my Master of Educational Leadership theses. The really cool thing is I already have a relationship with my supervisor and we have an initial meeting scheduled for tomorrow afternoon. I am in the throes of reading everything I can to gain some clarity before our meeting tomorrow. I have a supervisor but haven't finalised my topic. I had a fair idea of what I want to focus on, but as you may be aware "the more you know (read), the less you know". Wish me luck for my meeting tomorrow :D

14 July 2020

Educational Research in Context (Class #1)

Research has different purposes for different people. When researching it is about choosing the right tools for the right purpose.

Sculpture moves from simplicity to complexity and back to simplicity again
(Ruth Boyask)
An arts-based metaphor for the research process

Gibbs Farm Sculpture


Education research as social science
Perhaps the most fruitful with which the sociological imagination works is between the ‘personal troubles of milieu’ and ‘the public issues of social structure’. This distinction is an essential tool of the sociological imagination and a feature of all classic work in social science (C. Wright Mills, 1970, p14).

Education research is purposive, positional, persuasive and political
All social research sets out with specific purposes from a particular position, and aims to persuade readers of the significance of its claims. These claims are always broadly political (Clough & Nutbrown, 2012, p.4).
  • Purposive – every element must have significance and a reason for being included;
  • Positionality – good research considers how the standpoints of participants and researchers affect research;
  • Persuasiveness – good research needs to give a good account of itself, be convincing and authoritative;
  • Political – educational research is a moral endeavour and aims to achieve something, usually a social good.

Resources shared by Ruth

The Thesis Whisperer


The Project Planner

13 July 2020

The beginning of the my rangahau journey..

Here I am again, about to embark on the research section of my Master of Educational Leadership. This is my second time working through Master level study. My initial Master of Education was completed through a paper-based pathway with Massey University. Unfortunately, I didn't get grades to walk straight into a doctoral study, so here I am again. This time, ready and willing to take on a research-pathway. I'll be documenting my progress here (for myself) and for my tauira (at TWoA) and role-modelling my peaks, pits and ongoing questions. 


For my first class, I've been asked to read several readings and answer the questions below:
  • How would you define research as it relates to the project you want to undertake?
Research is a thread of curiosity that you just want to keep pulling at as you inquire and probe into an area of interest. (First attempt at a definition - Ikihele, 2020)
  • What is the purpose of your research?
All social research sets out with specific purposes from a particular position and aims to persuade readers of the significance of its claims. These claims are always broadly political.

I am fascinated with listening as a leadership skill. Part of this fascination is born from my desire to always talk. I'm not that great a listener, I know it's important and after lost of investigating into the topic of coaching I have even more motivation to delve deeper into this topic.
  • In what general topical area is your research-based?
Educational Leadership
  • What problem will your research address?
In a world that is more connected than we have ever been, we are failing to listen, this leads to miscommunication, isolation, lack of connection and many more issues. In our schools, it is essential that teachers (in their multi-faceted, complex lives) have the opportunity to be heard (our leaders do too). I am hoping to explore attentive listening as a skill in leaders.